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Last update 03-08-2016
HU Credits: 4

Degree/Cycle: 2nd degree (Master)

Responsible Department: international relations

Semester: Yearly

Teaching Languages: Hebrew

Campus: Mt. Scopus

Course/Module Coordinator: Dr. Tal Dingott Alkopher

Coordinator Email:

Coordinator Office Hours: Monday 16:00-17:00

Teaching Staff:
Dr. Tal Dingott Alkopher

Course/Module description:
This course deals with the issue of immigration that is one of the central themes in the age of globalization, and that has crucial impact on international relations, world politics and state-society relations. The focus of the course is immigration to Europe that occupies central place in public and academic debates in Europe particularly in recent years on the question of immigration restrictions, integration and the nexus immigration-security particularly in the context of immigration from non-European countries.

Course/Module aims:
1. To analyze three relevant and central topics:
(i) EU immigration policies (we will focus on refugees and asylum seeking policies); (ii) The impact of immigration on the inter-states relations in the EU
(iii) immigration-related integration policies in Europe (individual states, European Commission) before and after 90'. In this context we will also discuss the implications of integration failure in Europe expressed in exclusion and racism.
(iv) the phenomenon of radicalization in Europe usually related with the failure to integrate 3rd and 4th generations of immigrants into European societies. We will also discuss counter-terrorism policies of individual European states, as well as European institutions such as Europol.
2. To analyze the above topics using empirical sources reviewing immigration-related trends and data, but also political theories, theories of security, social theories (sociological, socio-psychological), as well as relevant critical theories.

Learning outcomes - On successful completion of this module, students should be able to:
1. To describe and examine central trends in immigration and integration policies of central European states such as France, Britain and Germany as well as the EU.
2. To interpret and to explain integration and immigration policies in Europe via the prism of central theories in IR, political philosophy, sociology and social psychology.
3. To criticize immigration and integration policies in Europe using normative and critical theories.
4. To implement relevant theories discussed in the course in order to explain immigration and integration policies of states other than European, such as Israel.
5. To examine and explain the phenomena of homegrown terrorism in Europe as well as to examine and explain counterterrorism measures in Europe
6. To interpret and explain the phenomenon of homegrown terrorism in Europe via different theoretical point of views (such as social psychology).
7. To explain and judge counterterrorism policy in the European Union through different analytical prisms and theories for example, the strategic prism, the social prism and the normative prism.

Attendance requirements(%):

Teaching arrangement and method of instruction: 1. Debate based on reading materials and reading reports.
2. data presentations
3. One long movie and one short movie along the course.

Course/Module Content:
Session 1: Introduction- course description, aims and demands
Session 2: Immigration to Europe- Categorization, Trends and Explanations
Immigration Policies in Europe
Session 3: Examining immigration policies and restrictions on immigration to Europe after WWII (We will focus on refugees and asylum seeking regime).
Session 4: Discussing active defense mechanisms against illegal immigrants. Session 5: Discussing preventive measures such as readmission agreements and ex territorial detention camps).
Session 6: Traditional National Security Theories explaining tough immigration policies.
Session 7: Constructivist and Critical Securitization theories explaining tough immigration policies.
Session 8: The impact of immigration on the European Integration.
Session 9: Movie, "Welcome".
Session 10: debate on the movie and instructions for seminar paper.
Integration Policies in Europe
Session 11: Models of immigrants' integration in Europe.
Session 12: Theoretical Models explaining integration policies- political theories.
Session 13: Models of integration policies- socio-psychological theories.
Session 14:Models of integration policies-
Critical theories.
Session 15: The failure of integration in Europe?
Homegrown Terrorism in Europe
Session 16: Information and data
Session 17: explanations to Fundamentalist Terrorism
Session 18: European and National Counterterrorism policies-interpretation and explanations.
Session 19: Refugees and asylum seeking policies in Israel through the security prism broadly defined.
Sessions 20-28: students' presentations.

Required Reading:
Introduction: *G.Lahav and S.Lavenex (2012) "International Migration", Handbook of Internatonal Relations, edited by T. Risse and B. Simmons (SAGE Publishers)
Immigration to Europe- Categorization, Trends and Explanations
*Stalker, peter, (2002) "Migration Trends and Migration Policy in Europe", International migration 40(5):151-179.
*Hooghe, Marc, Ann Trappers, Bart Meuleman, Tim Reeskens, (2008) “Migration to European Countries: A Structural Explanation of Patterns. 1980-2004” International Migration Review, Vol. 42 No. 2: 476-504.
Immigration Policies in Europe:
*Matthew Gibney and Randall Hansen, “Asylum Policy in the West: Past Trends, Future Possibilities,” WIDER Discussion Paper No. 2003/68 (September 2003). Available at
*Lavenex, S. (2001) Migration and the EU's new eastern border: between realism and liberalism, Journal of European Public Policy, 8(1): 24-42
* Lütterbeck, Derek. (2006) Policing Migration in the Mediterranean. Mediterranean Politics 11 (1): 59-82.
* Tal Dingott Alkopher "At "War" with People Smugglers: Is the EU's Plan to Sink Refugee Ships a Just Use of Force?", Work in Progress.
* Tal Dingott Alkopher "At "War" with People Smugglers: Is the EU's Plan to Sink Refugee Ships a Just Use of Force?", Work in Progress.
Theories explaining tough immigration policies (National security theory, Securitization theory)
*Peter Andreas "Redrawing the Line Borders and Security in the Twenty-First Century" International Security, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Fall 2003), pp. 100-107
* Miller, B. 2001. “The Concept of Security: Should it be Redefined?” Journal of Strategic Studies 24: 13-42.
* Balzacq T (2005) The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context. European Journal of International Relations 11(2): 171-201.
*Huymans, Jef, (2000) "The European Union and the Securitization of Migration", Journal of Common Market Studies 38(5): 751-777õ
The impact of immigration on the EU:
* Tal Dingott Alkopher and Emmanuelle Blanc (forthcoming, First online 11 July 2016) Schengen Area Shaken: The Impact of Immigration-Related Threat Perceptions on the European Security Community. Journal of International Relations and Development. Doi: 10.1057/s41268-016-0005-9, pp.1-32.
Integration Policies in Europe:
Models of integration policies (political, sociological)
*Carrera, S (2006) A Typology of Different Integration Programmes in the EU. Briefing Paper on Immigration and Integration, Centre for European Policy Studies. pp.1-19. <>
*Terri E. Givens (2007) "Immigrant Integration in Europe: Empirical Research", Annual Review of Political Science, 10:67–83.
Theoretical issues in explaining integration models (political theory, socio-psychological theory, critical theory)
*Illiberal Liberal States: Immigration, Citizenship and Integration in the EU. Edited by Elspeth Guild, Kees Groenendijk and Sergio Carrera. Ashgate, 2009. Chap. 6.
* Tal Dingott Alkopher "The Political Psychology of Integration Strategies: The Case of the European Commission’s Interculturalism," Work in Progress.
* Lowenheim, O. and O. Gazit (2009) "Power and Examination: A Critique of Citizenship Tests", Security Dialogue 40(2): 145-167
The failure of integration in Europe?
*Joana Fomina. 2006. "The failure of British Multiculturalism: Lessons for Europe," Polish Sociological Review, 4(156):409-424.
*Keith Banting&Will Kymlicka (2013) "Is there really a retreat from multiculturalism Policies? New Evidence from the multiculturalism policy index", Comparative European Politics, Vol.11(5): 577-598.
Homegrown Terrorism in Europe
Information and data
*Byman, Daniel and Shapiro Jeremy (2014) "Homeward Bound? Don't Hype the Threat of Returnning Jihadists", Foreign Affairs (93.6) Nov/Dec 2014, 37-42, 44-46.
Explanations to Fundamentalist Terrorism
*Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen (2010) "Violent Radicalization in Europe: What We Know and What We do not know", Studies in Conflict and Terrorism", 33(9): 797-814.
* Alex S. Wilner, Claire-Jehanne Dubouloz (2010) "Homegrown Terrorism and Transformative Learning: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding Radicalization", Global Change, Peace&Security, 22(1): 33-51.
Counterterrorism in Europe:
*Council of the European Union (2005) European Union Counter terrorism Strategy, 14469/4/05: 30 November.
*Marieke De Goede (2008) "The Politics of Preemption and the War on Terror in Europe", EJIR 14(1:)161-185.
Tal Dingott Alkopher and Esther Lopatin "Alternative Explanations for Israel's Policy Towards Asylum Seekers and Refugees: From the Traditional Security Prism to the Socio-Psychological Prism", Work in Progress.

Additional Reading Material:
Immigration to Europe- Categorization, Trends and Explanations
Messina and Lahav, The Migration Reader: A Key Text (Lynne Rienner, Pub., Boulder, Colorado, 2006)
Stephen Castles and Mark J.Miller, The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, 4th ed. (New York: Guilford, 2009) Chapter 2, 4th ed., pp. 20-48.
kyrien Katarina marina, "Demographic changes immigration policy and development in
the European union" EIPASCOPE 2007/3 pp 21-26
Godoy, Leticia Delgado, "Immigration in Europe: Realities and Policies", (Universidad
Rey Juan Carlos, june 2002) pp 1-17
Immigration Policies in Europe
Session 3: Examining immigration policies and restrictions on immigration to Europe
• Restrictions on Visas policies and asylum seeking procedures
Brochmann G., and Hammar T., (1999) Mechanisms of Immigration Control: A Comparative Analysis of European Regulations Policies, Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Schuster, L. (2000) ‘A Comparative Analysis of the Asylum Policy of Seven European
Governments’, Journal of Refugee Studies 13(1): 118-132.
Adam Luedtke, “Fortifying Fortress Europe? The Effects of September 11 on EU
Immigration Policy,” ch. 7 (130-47) in Terri Givens, Gary Freeman, and David Leal (eds.), Immigration Policy and Security: US, European, and Commonwealth Perspectives (Routledge, 2009(
Theodora Kostakopoulou (2000) "The "Protective Union": Change and Continuity in Migration Law and Policy in Post-Amsterdam Europe", Journal of Common Market Studies 38(3): 497-518.
• Creating an active defense against illegal immigrants
Korontzis Tryfon (2012) The Contribution of EUROPOL and FRONTEX in Combating
the Phenomenon of Illegal Immigration in Hellas Review of European Studies 4(1): 188-194.
S.Carrera & E.Guild (2010) "Joint Operation Rabit 2010'-Frontex Assistance to Greece's Border with Turkey: Revealing the Deficiencies of Europe's Dublin Asylum System",
J.Parkin (2012) "EU Home Affairs Agencies and the Construction of EU Internal Security", CEPS paper in Liberty and Security in Europe, no.53, <>
Neall Andrew (2009) The securitization and Risk at the EU border: the Origins of
FRONTEX. Journal of Common market studies 47(2):333-356.
Leonard, Sarah. (2009) The Creation of FRONTEX and the politics of institutionalization in the EU external borders policy. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 5 (3): 371-388.
Pawlak, P. (2012) ‘The unintentional development of the EU’s security governance beyond borders’, European Foreign Affairs Review 17(1/2): 87-107
• Preventive measures such as readmission agreements and exterritorial detention camps
Dimulescu, Valentina. (2011) Migrants at the gates : the external dimension of the EU’s migration policy in the South Mediterranean. Interdisciplinary Political Studies Vol. 1 no. 2 : 161-165.
Carl Levy, “Refugees, Europe, Camps/State of Exception: ‘Into The Zone’, the European
Union and Extraterritorial Processing of Migrants, Refugees, and Asylum-seekers (Theories and Practice),” Refugee Survey Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 1 (August 2010): 92-119.
Zaiotti, Ruben. (2007) «Of Friends and Fences: Europe’s Neighborhood Policy and the «Gated Community Syndrome». Journal of European Integration 29 (2): 143-162.
"Take my migrants, please!" The Economist, 14.4.11
Deutsche Welle, ‘Human Rights Group Slams EU Asylum Plans’ (Bonn:
Deutsche Welle, 2004), [,1564,1342901,
00.html] (30 September 2004).
Noll, Gregor, "The Euro-African Migration Conference: Africa Sells Out to Europe",
Open Democracy free thinking of the world, 2006.
Session 4: Theories explaining tough immigration policies (National security theory, Securitization theory)
• National Security
Christopher Rudolph (2006) National Security and Immigration: Policy Development in
the United States and Western Europe Since 1945, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.pp.1-28
Adamson, Fiona B. (2006) Crossing Borders: International Migration and National Security. International Security 31 (1): 165-199.
Reinhard Lohrmann (2000) “Migrants, Refugees and Insecurity. Current Threats to
Peace?" International Migration 38(4): 3-22.
Myron Weiner, “Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods: An Inquiry into the Causes of
Refugee Flows,” International Security, vol. 21, no. 1 (summer 1996): 5-42.
Jack L. Goldstone, “Demography, Environment and Security: An Overview,” in Myron Weiner
and Sharon K. Russell (eds.) Demography and National Security (Berghahn, 2001).
Jonathan Stevenson, “How Europe and America Defend Themselves,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 82,
No. 2 (March/April 2003), p. 86.
Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management
• Securitization Theory
Kariotis, Georgios (2011) The fallacy of securitizing migration: elite rationality and unintended consequences. In: Security and Migration in Europe. Ashgate, Surrey, Great Britain. 13-30.
Bigo, Didier "Security and Immigration: Toward a Critique of the Governmentality of
Unease" Alternative 27 (2002) p 63-92
Guild, E. (2003) International Terrorism and EU Immigration Asylum and Borders Policy : the unexpected victims of 11 September 2001. European Foreign Affairs Review 8 (3) : 331-346.
Lavenex, Sandra. (2001) Migration and the EU’s new Eastern Border : between realism and liberalism. Journal of European Public Policy 8 (1) : 24-42.
Lavenex, S. (2002) ‘The Europeanization of Refugee Policies: Normative Challenges and
Institutional Legacies’, Journal of Common Market Studies 39(5): 851-874.
Lavanex, Sandra. (2006) Shifting up and out : the Foreign Policy of European Immigration
Control. West European Politics 29 (2): 329-350.
Collinson, Sarah. (2007) Security or Securitization? Migration and the pursuit of Freedom, Security and Justice in the Euro-Mediterranean Area. EuroMesco Publication no. 19
Mitsilegas, V. (2007) ‘Border Security in the European Union. Towards Centralised Controls and Maximum Surveillance’ in E. Guild, H. Toner and A. Baldaccini (eds.), Whose Freedom, Security and Justice? EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy, Hart Publishing, pp.359-394.
Roig, Annabelle and Huddleston, Thomas. (2007) EC Readmission Agreements: A Re- evaluation of the Political Impasse. European Journal of Migration and Law 9: 363- 387.
Elspeth Guild (2009) Security and Migration in the 21st Century. Polity press.
Integration Policies in Europe
Session 6: Models of integration policies (political, sociological)
Illiberal Liberal States: Immigration, Citizenship and Integration in the EU. Edited by Elspeth Guild, Kees Groenendijk and Sergio Carrera. Ashgate, 2009.Chap. 1,15,16,17.
Joppke, Christian 2007 "Beyond National Models: Civic Integration Policies for Immigrants in Western Europe", West European Politics 30(1): 1-22.
Pamela Irving Jackson and Roderick Parkes (2006) "Globalization and the Secularization of Immigration Policy: Competing Influences on Immigrant Integration Policy in Germany, France, Britain and the United States", Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge, iv(special issue):131-146.
Cristophe Bertossi: National Models of Integration in Europe: A Comparative and Critical Analysis, American Behavioral Scientist, xx(x):1-20
Costoiu A. (2008) "Modes of Minorities' Integration: Explaining Historical, Economic and Political Factors", Journal of Identity and Migration Studies, 2(2): 2-17.
Sessions 7-8: Theoretical issues in explaining integration models
• political theory
Kymlicka W. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship:A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
Brubaker WR. 2001. The return of assimilation? Changing perspectives on immigration and its sequels in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic Racial Studies. 24(4):531–48.
Favell A. 2001. Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of
Citizenship in France and Britain. New York: Palgrave.
Groenendijk, Kees 2004. "Legal Concepts of Integration in EU Migration Law", European Journal of Migration and Law, vol.6, no.2, pp.111-126.
Bauböck, Rainer. 2009. Global justice, freedom of movement, and democratic
citizenship. Archives Européennes de Sociologie Vol. 50 No. 1: 1-31.
• socio-psychological theory
Kinnvall, Catarina (2004) ‘Globalization and religious nationalism: self, identity, and the search for ontological security’, Political Psychology 25(5): 741–67.
Kinnvall, Catarina and Paul Nesbitt-Larkin (2010b) ‘The political psychology of (de)securitisation: place making strategies in Denmark, Sweden, and Canada’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 28, pp.1051-1070.
Kinnvall, C. and Nesbitt-Larking (2011) The Political Psychology of Globalization (New York: Oxford University Press).
Buzan, Barry (1993) ‘Societal security, state security and internationalism’, in Ole Weaver, Barry Buzan, Morten Kelstrup, and Pierre Lemaitre, eds., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, 41–58, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter, Colleen Ward and Anne-Marie Masgoret (2006) ‘Patterns of relations between immigrants and host Societies’, International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30: 637–651.
• critical theory
Goodman, Sara W. 2010. "Integration Requirements for Integration's sake? Identifying, Categorizing and Comparing Civic Integration Policies", Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5): 753-772.
Session 9: The failure of integration in Europe?
Maria Stehle (2012) "White ghettos: the 'crisis of multiculturalism' in post-unification Germany", European Journal of Cultural Studies, Special Issue on Multiculturalism 15(2): 167-181.
Deborah Phillips (2010) "Minority Ethnic Segregation, Integration and Citizenship: A European Perspective", Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(2): 209-225.
Gabrielle Berman; Yin Paradies, (2010) "Racism, disadvantage and multiculturalism: towards effective anti-racist Praxis", Ethnic and Racial Studies,vol.33(2):219-221.
Ariane Chebel D'Appollonia (2008) "Immigration, Security, and Integration in the European Union" in Immigration, Integration, and Security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective edited by Ariane Chebel d'Appollonia and Simon Reich (University of Pittsburgh Press), pp.203-228.
Charles Taylor (2012) 'Interculturalism or multiculturalism?' Philosophy & Social Criticism, 38 (4-5):413-423
Kinnvall and Nesbit-Larking (2011) The political psychology of globalization: Muslims in the West. Pp.52-53 (on the notion of "Retreatist Multiculturalism").
Immigration backlash in Germany. “Multikulturell? Wir? How a fresh debate on multiculturalism in Germany clashes with the country’s need for more immigrants,” The Economist, 11 November 2010. At;894664&story_id&eq;17469563
K.L. (2013) "Is the Integration of Integration of Immigrants failing?" Economist, 25 May.
Homegrown Terrorism in Europe
Session 11: explanations to Fundamentalist Terrorism
Syed Mansoob Murshed and Sara Paven (2011) "Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe", Civil Wars, 13(3): 259-279.
Vidino, Lorenzo. 2007. The Hofstad Group: The New Face of Terrorist Networks in Europe. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30: 579-92.
Volpi, Frédéric. 2007. Constructing the ‘Ummah’ in European Security: Between Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Government and Opposition 42 (3):451- 470.
Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalization Challenge in Europe, edited by Rik Coolsaet, Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Nesser, Petter. 2006. Jihadism in Western Europe After the Invasion of Iraq: Tracing Motivational Influences from the Iraq War on Jihadist Terrorism in Western Europe. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29:323-342.
Kinnvall and Larking (2011) The political psychology of globalization: Muslims in the West. Pp.64-65 (on fundamentalism as an "essentialist" psychological reaction).
Session 12: European and National Counterterrorism policies-interpretation and explanations
Frank Foley (2013) Countering Terrorism in Britain and France: Institutions, Norms and the Shadow of the Past. Cambridge University Press.
Huysmans, J. & Tsoukala, A (2008) The Social Construction of control of danger in Counterterrorism, Alternatives, vol. 33 no.2.
Peter R.Neumann (2006) "Europe's Jihadist Dillemma", Survival, 48(2): 71-84.
Monica Den Boer and Jörg Monar (2002) "Keynote Article: 11 September and the Challenge of Global Terrorism to the EU as a Security Actor", JCMS 40:11-28.
Jackson Richard (2007) "An Analysis of EU counterterrorism discourse post-September 11", Cambridge Review of International Affairs 20(2): 233-247.
Renée de Nevers (2007) "NATO's International Security Role in the Terrorist Era", International Security 31(4): 34-66.
Zimmermann, Doron. 2006. The European Union and Post-9/11 Counterterrorism: A Reappraisal. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29:123-145.
Brouwer, E. 2003. Immigration, Asylum and Terrorism: A Changing Dynamic Legal and Practical Developments in the EU in Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11.09. European Journal of Migration and Law 4: 399-424.
Dumitriu, E. 2004. The E.U.’s Definition of Terrorism: The Council Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism. German Law Journal, Vol.5 No. 5, pp. 585-602.
Haubrich, D. 2003. September 11th, Anti-Terror Laws and Civil Liberties: Britain, France and Germany Compared. Government and Opposition Ltd
Kaunert, C. & S. Léonard (2011) EU counter- terrorism and the EU Neighbourhood Policy: an appraisal of the southern dimension, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23, 2: 286- 309.

Course/Module evaluation:
End of year written/oral examination 0 %
Presentation 20 %
Participation in Tutorials 10 %
Project work 50 %
Assignments 0 %
Reports 20 %
Research project 0 %
Quizzes 0 %
Other 0 %

Additional information:
Students needing academic accommodations based on a disability should contact the Center for Diagnosis and Support of Students with Learning Disabilities, or the Office for Students with Disabilities, as early as possible, to discuss and coordinate accommodations, based on relevant documentation.
For further information, please visit the site of the Dean of Students Office.